Air-hydraulic rocket

The main node in the rocket will be the valve, it will be responsible for the effectiveness of our entire rocket. By means of it, air is forced and retained in the bottle. We take a punctured or a working chamber from any bicycle and cut out its "nipple", the part to which we connect the pump.It will also require a conventional stopper from bottles of wine or champagne, but since there are so many different shapes and sizes, the main selection criterion for us there will be a length of at least 30 mm and a diameter so that the cork enters the neck of the bottle with tension 2/3 of its length. It is better to drill a hole in two steps, first with a thin drill, and then with a drill of the required diameter, and most importantly do it gently with a little effort. Next, the “nipple” and the cork are joined together, after dropping a little “super glue” into the hole of the cork to prevent air from escaping from the bottle.The last detail in the valve will be the platform that serves to fasten the valve to the launch pad. It must be made of durable material, such as metal or fiberglass laminate with a thickness of 2-3 mm and dimensions of 100x20 mm. After you have made 3 mounting holes and a nipple in it, you can glue the cork to it, while it is better to use epoxy glue for a stronger connection. As a result, the main thing is that a part of the nipple protrudes over the platform by about 8-11 mm, otherwise there will be nothing to connect the pump. &Nbsp;Startedtherocketitself.Shewillneedtwo1.5-literbottlesforitsmanufacturing,atabletennisball,coloredscotch.Onebottlecanbeputasideforthetimebeing,andwiththesecondwewillperformtheoperation.Itisnecessarytocutoffthetopofthebottleneatly,sothatthetotallengthisapproximately100mm.Furtherwesawoffaheadwithathreadfromthispart.Asaresult,wehaveturnedtheheadfairing,butthat'snotall.Sincetherewasaholeinthemiddle,itshouldbeclosedandinthiscaseyouwillneedacookedball.Takethewholebottle,turnitwiththeneckdown,puttheballontopandputontheheadfairing.Insum,itturnedoutthattheballsticksoutalittlebeyondthecircumferenceofthebottle;itwillserveasanelementsofteningablowtothegroundduringdescentfromorbit.Nowyouneedtodecoratetherocketsalittle,sincethebottlesaretransparent,theninflighttherocketwillbehardtoseeandforthis,wherethereisaflatcylindricalsurface,wewrapcoloredtape.Thatwastheresultofthecherishedrocket,althoughitlooksmorelikeaballisticintercontinentalrocket.Ofcourse,stabilizerscanbemadetoresembleastandardrocket,buttheywillnotaffectthisprojectileinanyway.Stabilizersintheamountoffourpiecesareeasytomakefromcardboardfromunderhouseholdappliances,cuttingthemoutsmallinsize.Youcangluethemtothemissilebodywithliquidnailsorsimilarglue.Nowwe’llstartmakingthelaunchpad.Todothis,weneedaflatplywoodsheet5-7mmthick,cutbyasquarewithsidesof250mmlength.Inthecenter,wefirstfixthepreviouslymadepadwithavalve,choosethedistancebetweentheholesarbitrarily,thedistancebetweenthetwopadsshouldbeatleast60mmandforthisweuseboltswithadiameterof4or5mmandalengthofatleast80mmforfastening.Further,inordertofixtherocketonthelaunchpad,itwillbenecessarytomakeaholderwithastartingdevice,whichconsistsoftwoangles,twonailsand4boltswithfastening.Atthecornerononesidewedrilltwoholesforfastenerstothelaunchpad,thedistancebetweentheholes,bothinthecornerandinthemainpad,shouldbethesame,forexample,30mm.Ontheothersideofbothcorners,youalsoneedtomaketwoholeswithadiameterof5mmfortwolargenailsofthesamediameter,butthedistancebetweentheholesshouldbesuchthatthedistancebetweenthenailsthemselvesisfrom28to30mm.Wheneverythingisassembled,adjusttheheightofthefixingnails.Todothis,installthebottleonthevalve,asincombatmode,withgreateffortandafterthatyouneedtochoosetheheightofthecornerssothatthenailscaneasilyslideintheholesthemselvesandbetweentheneckofthebottle.Thenailsalsoserveasadescentmechanism,butstillneedtomakeaspecialplateconnectingthemandfortherope,whichwewillpulltolaunchtherocket.Thefinalelementsinthelaunchpadwillbethelegs,forwhichitisnecessarytodrill4holesinallcornersofthesiteandfasten4smallbolts30to50mminlength,theyservetofixthestartingtableintheground.&Nbsp;Therocketshouldbefilledwithwaterinastrictlyspecifiedamount,thisis1/3ofthetotallengthofthewholebottle.Itiseasytoseebyexperimentthatitisnotnecessarytopourtoomuchwater,astoolittle,asinthefirstcasetheairremainstoothereisnotenoughspace,andinthesecond-toomuch,theenginethrustwillbeveryweakinthesecases,andtheoperatingtimewillbeshort.Whenthevalveisopened,thecompressedairstartstothrowwaterthroughthenozzle,resultinginathrust,andtherocketdevelopstheappropriatespeed(about12m/s).Itshouldbeborneinmindthattheamountofthrustisalsoaffectedbythecross-sectionalareaof​​thenozzle.Thedraft,whichdecreasesaswateristhrownaway,willallowtherockettoreachaheightof30–50m.Afewtestrunswithlightormoderatewindmakeitpossibletoconcludethatwhenthevalveissealedtothebottle,thecorrectfillingwaterandwiththeverticalinstallationofthemodelatthestartitcanreachaheightofabout50m.Installingarocketatanangleof60°reducestheheightoftheclimb,buttherangeincreases.Withshallowertrajectories,eitherthemodelstartswillfail,ortherangewillbesmall.Amodellaunchedwithoutwaterwillbeverylightandwillriseonlyby2–5m.Itisbesttolaunchair-hydraulicmodelsincalmweather.Asaresultofthetests,itiseasytoseethatthemodelhasgoodstabilityandatendencytoorientupwind,bothinthepresenceofthrustandaftertheendofengineoperation.Theflighttimeofthemodelfromthestarttothemomentoflanding,dependingontheheightreached,is5to7seconds.&Nbsp;Bytheway,air-hydraulicrocketscanbemulti-stage,thatis,consistofseveralbottlesorevenfiveormore.Ingeneral,therecordfortheheightoftheflightofsucharocketisasmuchas600meters,noteverystandardmodeloftherocketcanreachsuchanaltitude.Atthesametime,theycanliftasignificantpayload,forexample,sometestersinstallcamerasormini-videocamerasandconductaerialphotographysuccessfully.&Nbsp;So, when everything is ready you can go outside and make the first launches. Together with the rocket and equipment, you still need to take extra fuel - a few bottles of water. Such missiles can be launched anywhere, in a schoolyard, in a forest clearing, the main thing is that within a radius of 20 meters there are no buildings that impede a combat flight. In the center of our landfill, set the launch pad so that the installed rocket is strictly vertical. Next, we connect the pump to the valve, pour water of the prescribed volume into the rocket and quickly place it on the starting table, so that the valve fits very tightly into the bottle neck.Now we cock the trigger, put the two nails into the holes, fixing them. It is better to launch an air-hydraulic rocket together, one will jerk the rope - to make a start, and the other to pump air into the bottle. The length of the rope should be about 10 - 15 meters, this distance is enough so that the trigger does not spray the rocket with a fountain of water, but the one who runs the pump cannot be envied, he has very big chances to take a cool shower with an unusual rocket flight. Since our rocket consists of a 1.5-liter bottle, it should be pumped to a pressure of 4 to 5 atmospheres, you can try more, but the valve itself and the connection to the pump of such high pressure will not stand, and there will be a leak. When pumping, you can not be afraid that something can happen to the bottle, because it can withstand 30 - 40 atmospheres with the technical data. Air injection lasts approximately 30 seconds. When the necessary pressure in the bottle is reached, the launching command is given the “Start” command, which jerks the rope with a sharp movement and after a moment the rocket rushes into the sky, carrying out a combat mission.To decorate the flight, you can tint water, such as paints or potassium permanganate, so you can accurately trace the jet and the trajectory of the rocket. For the next start, it remains only to pour fuel from the reserve and pump air into the engine compartment again.


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