Carnival in 2013. Rites, fun, pancakes for Shrovetide week

Maslenitsa- One of the Russian calendar holidays. Winter offsets and Spring meetings are celebrated on this day. He came to us from pagan Russia. The ancient Slavs celebrated the pagan Slavic holiday Komoeditsa (from the XVI century - Maslenitsa). This holiday had a sacral meaning of the solemn meeting of the predominance of the day over night and the consecration of the unity of each member of the gens with their great ancestors, with their kin and with the entire Slavic tribe-tribe. Komoditsa is the Day of the Vernal Equinox, during which the Slavonian bear-god Kom (com-bear) was also revered. This “great god” was offered “pancake sacrifices”. From here - “the first pancake to comas”, i.e. bears. (Compare the modern saying - “the first pancake is lumpy” - a completely different meaning!). The pancake was carried to the thicket, sacrificing to the clumsy forest owner - the great Honey beast to whom ...


In addition, Maslenitsa, as it may not be known to all, is a character in Slavic mythology. Shrovetide embodies in itself at once three characters: Fertility, Winter and Death. The name of the holiday itself in ancient times was transferred to an anthropomorphic character, who at the very beginning of the holiday was solemnly greeted with great chants on the hill.


From time immemorial there was the conviction that “if you do not take panache on a broad Maslenitsa, it means that living in bitter trouble and life is bad end. Therefore, Shrovetide has always been met widely, cheerfully: fun and games are arranged on the streets, festivities with songs, dances, mummers ... At Shrovetide it was decided to "eat up to hiccups, drink up to dandruff, sing up to the hops, dance till you drop." Mantles, booths, taking snow towns, fisticuffs, swimming in ice holes, climbing the pole for a prize, playing with bears, music, singing, gingerbread cookies are very different (sculpted, carved, tinted, printed and painted), a feast, burning a straw stuffed Maslenitsa - all these are entertainment, which took place at the celebration of Maslenitsa.


The name of Shrovetide is also stuffed with straw, which is wrapped in women's clothes with oil pancake or a frying pan in their hands (from pancake, round and oil, and the name of both the holiday and the character was formed).With this scarecrow cheerfully spent the whole Maslenitsa week: they rode with him on threes, and at the end of the feast they buried Maslenitsa or escorted, tearing the scarecrow to small shreds on the edge of the village. But, more often than not, the effigy of Maslenitsa was burned on a merry burning bonfire, which was necessarily erected “on the hill” - on some hill.


The funeral rites of the Carnival were always accompanied by processions of mummers, carnivals, loud laughter, appeals of the Spring and demonstrative reproaches of the Carnival in special couplets. In these songs Maslenitsa is called (in connection with the Great Lent, which comes immediately after the abundant feasts of the Maslenitsa Week), a fraud, a delicious, pancake, and other offensive nicknames. A straw effigy, dressed up in festive clothes or in rags, was taken out of the village by the whole crowd and thrown into the water or torn to pieces. Straw from a gutted scarecrow was scattered across the fields in order to ensure a good harvest and give fertility to the land.


Residents of small provincial towns and villages themselves became actors in an unusual battle - the capture of a snow town.Having gathered, they amicably erected a fortress with intricate towers and two gates from the snow. Most often they put it on the ice of the river and cut it in the middle with a polynya. Then the participants of the game were divided into two parties. Horse boldmen besieged the fortress, and its defenders fought back with snowballs, waving twigs and brooms, frightening horses. The winner, who burst into the gate first, was awaited by a test: he was forced to swim in an ice-hole. Then all the participants of the game were offered treats, and the winner was awarded a gift.


A common Shrovetide fun, especially in the outback, was fisticuffs. It begins with the traditional "wall" when the fighters of two parties line up against each other. And it ends with the fact that “everyone is fighting, having crowded into one heap, without sorting out his relatives, friends, or acquaintances.”


But the most beloved and beautiful Shrovetide ceremony was sleigh rides. Everyone who had a horse rode out, and the streets of cities and villages raced off the races of sorts: the rich flaunted their sleek trotters and painted sledges, covered carpets or bear skins, and then peasant horses, cleaned to the shine, decorated with colored lenses, and un-tidy, decorated with color stripes, and uncommonly decorated with color stripes, and decorated with color stripes and decorated with color stripes and decorated with color ribbon. . Horse hooves thundered, bells and bells rang, harmonics flooded.The boys blew with delight into clay whistles, leading out bird trills and not even suspecting that the imitation of the voices of the birds was also a remnant of the pagan rituals of the Spring-Red cursing.


Widely celebrated Pancake Day in Russia! It is not without reason that the proverb is preserved in our people to this day - “not every cat is Maslenitsa, there will be Lent”, “not live, but Maslenitsa”.


From the history of Maslenitsa in Russia.



Slavic pagan temple. Eve of the holiday Komoeditsy.

Maslenitsa(up to the XVI century - the pagan Komoeditsa, according to the old pre-revolutionary spelling they wrote “Maslyanitsa”) - one of the oldest holidays of the religion of the Druids (Magi).


Formerly Komoyeditsa is a great Old Slavic pagan 2-week celebration of the solemn meeting of Spring and the beginning of the Old Slavic New Year on the Day of the spring equinox. This day marked the transition to spring agricultural work. The celebration of Komoyeditsy began a week before the Vernal Equinox and lasted a week after.


In 988, the conquerors of the Vikings (Rurikovich Prince Vladimir), in order to strengthen his greatly shaken power over the heavily oppressed conquered tribes, fire, sword and great blood, forced the Slavs subject to them to abandon their original gods, who symbolized the ancient Slavic ancestors, and accept faith in the God of another people.


Surviving after mass bloody skirmishes and protests, the Slav population was the most cruelly baptized (everyone, including small children, drummers of the Varangians were driven by spears to be baptized into rivers, and the rivers, according to the chronicler, "blushed with blood"). Images of Slavic gods were burnt, temples and sanctuaries (temples) destroyed. In the baptism of the Slavs there was not even a hint of reverent Christian holiness - just another brutal act of the Vikings (Varangians), who were distinguished by their particular cruelty.


At baptism, many Slavs were killed, and some fled to the North, to the lands beyond the control of the Vikings. As a result of the genocide perpetrated during the Christianization, the Slavic population of Rus decreased from ca. 12 million to 3 million people (the data of the all-Russian censuses of the population from 980 and 999 clearly indicate this horrific population decline). Later, those who fled to the North were also subjected to baptism, but they never had slavery (“serfdom”).


The enslaved Slavs for ever lost their roots and spiritual connection with ancient ancestors. Now they did not become Slavonic, Krivichi, Vyatichi, Drevlyane, Glade ..., but they began to be called by their Scandinavian masters-Russes by the adjective "Russians" (whose - Russian).Although all peoples in the Russian language are called nouns (who? - French, Greeks, Tatars, Finns ...). The name of the adjective is still preserved for their remote descendants, that is, for us with you.


After the adoption of Christianity in Russia, the magi fearlessly fought for the independence of the Slavs and became participants in many uprisings against the oppressors of the Vikings (Vikings), supported the opposition forces of the Kiev prince.


The last "real" wise men are mentioned in the XIII-XIV centuries. in Novgorod and Pskov. By this time, paganism in Russia was almost eliminated. Together with the Magi, their ancient runic writing and their knowledge disappeared. Almost all runic records, including historical chronicles, were destroyed by Christians. The original written history of the Slavs before the VIII century became unknown. Occasionally, archaeologists find only scattered fragments of inscriptions on the stones of destroyed pagan temples and on shards of pottery. Later, under the name "Wise Men" in Russia were understood only different kinds of folk healers, heretics, and the newly-minted warlocks.


After the adoption in Russia of Christianity, the ancient pagan Slavic holiday Komoditsa - a great holiday of the Spring sacred,coming on the Day of the spring equinox (March 20 or 21) - fell at the time of the Orthodox Lent, when all the fun festivals and games by the Church were forbidden, and even punished. After a long struggle of the clergy with the pagan Slavic holiday, it was included in the Orthodox holidays under the name "Cheese (Meat-Friendly) Week", which preceded the 7th week of Great Lent.


Thus, the holiday moved closer to the beginning of the year and lost contact with the astronomical event - the day of the spring equinox, the day of the arrival of the pagan spring sacred. This broke his sacred connection with the Slavic religion of the Magi (Druids), which was traditional for the Slavs, in which it was the days of the winter (the longest night of the year) and the summer (the longest day of the year) solstice and spring (the day lengthens and becomes equal to the night) and autumn (the day shortens and becomes equal to the night) The equinoxes were the greatest and most sacred holidays.


In the people, the holiday transformed into church order was called Maslenitsa and continued to be celebrated with the same pagan scope, but on different dates tied to Orthodox Easter (the beginning of Maslenitsa 8 weeks before Easter, then the 7-week Lent before Easter).


At the beginning of the XVIII century, a lover of feasts and holidays, Peter I, who was well acquainted with cheerful European shrovetide customs, with his royal regulations, introduced in Russia an obligatory universal celebration of the traditional Maslenitsa for the traditional European manner. Maslenitsa turned into a secular holiday, accompanied by endless fun games, rides from the hills, competitions with prizes. Actually, from Petrovsky time our present Maslenitsa appeared with organized cheerful carnival processions of mummers, amusements, buffoons, endless jokes and festivities.


Maslenitsa week. Details about the 7 days of Pancake Week.



Each day of the Pancake Week was given its name:


Monday - Meeting;
Tuesday - Lunches;
Wednesday - Gourmet;
Thursday - Razgul;
Friday - Vescheny vespers;
Saturday - Zolovki gatherings;
Sunday is a curtailed day.


The first day of Shrovetide. A meeting.

The well-to-do people began the meeting of Shrovetide by visiting relatives. In the morning the father-in-law and mother-in-law sent the daughter-in-law for the day to the father and mother, and in the evening they themselves came to the matchmakers to visit.Here, behind a round glass, it was established when and where to spend time, who to call for, when to ride through the streets.
By the first day, the Pancake Day organized mountains, a hanging swing, booths for buffoon, tables with sweets. Not to ride from the mountains and on the swings, not to make fun of the buffoons meant in the old days - to live in bitter trouble, and in old age lie on your deathbed, sit crippled without a leg.


The second day of Maslenitsa. Litters

On Tuesday, unrestrained, funny, and distant games, skating, and fun began. All Shrovetide fun and fun tended, in fact, to matchmaking, so that after Lent to play the Red Hill wedding. Guests received, met at the gate, on the porch. After the feast, they were allowed to go to the mountains, where the brothers looked out for the brides, and the sisters peeked at the betrothed.


The third day of Shrovetide. Gourmand
On Lakomku, the mother-in-law took the sons-in-law to pancakes, and for the amusements of the sons-in-law they called all the relatives. And in the evenings they sang songs about a caring mother-in-law, treating her son-in-law with pancakes; they played farces with a dressed-up bear about how the mother-in-law for the son-in-law baked pancakes, as the mother-in-law had a headache, and how my mother-in-law thanks her mother.It was believed that at Shrovetide, and especially at Lakomka, you need to eat as much as your heart desires, or, as the people said, “how many times a dog wags its tail”.


The fourth day of Shrovetide. Rampant
On Thursday, a wide debauchery began: skating through the streets, fistfights, and various ceremonies. For example, a pole was tied to a huge sleigh, a wheel was tied to it, and a peasant was put on the wheel — a joker and an entertainer with wine and rolls, and after this “train” with songs the people dragged on. And they also started stuffing Shrovetide to carriage and caroling: the dressed kids went from house to house and sang: “Tryntsy Bryntsi, bake blintsy!”, Thus asking for food for a festive evening.


The fifth day of Shrovetide. Tyoshine vespers.
On Wednesday, the mother-in-law did not have time to feed the sons-in-law with pancakes, as now the sons-in-law invite them to their house! Indeed, on Friday, at the cracks of the evening, sons-in-law treated their wives' mothers with pancakes and sweets. Therefore, it was said that "the mother-in-law's mother-in-law is his beloved son."


The sixth day of Shrovetide. Zolovkin gatherings.
On Saturday, the young sister-in-law invited her husband's relatives to visit her Zolovka gatherings (sister-in-law is the husband's sister). The newly married daughter-in-law was supposed to give presents to her sister-in-laws.Interestingly, the very word “sister-in-law” was believed to be derived from the word “evil”, since the husband’s sisters were referring to the daughter-in-law (“who came from nowhere”) incredulously and cautiously - let us recall at least Russian folk tales.


The seventh day of Maslenitsa. Forgiveness Sunday.
On the last day of Shrovetide, everyone asked each other for forgiveness, the newlyweds went to visit their relatives, gave gifts to the mother-in-law and mother-in-law, matchmakers and friends for wedding gifts. We also went to give godfather with godfather: it was believed that the most honorable gift for godfather was a towel, for kumy - a bar of soap. On Sunday, a scarecrow was burned, as a symbol of winter that ended. And the ashes waved over the fields - "for a rich harvest." In the evening, Forgiveness took place between relatives and friends: the children bowed to their parents' legs and asked for forgiveness, after them all their relatives and relatives came. Everyone is asking forgiveness of each other, freeing themselves from sins before Lent. Bow to the legs. And in response, they hear the familiar: "God will forgive." The Pancake Week leaves, and together with it and the winter. Goes to the sound of dripping. Spring comes into its own. Thus, people were freed from the old grievances accumulated over the year, and they celebrated the new year with a pure heart and a light soul.


Shrovetide ceremonies.



Shrovetide rituals are very unusual and interesting, as they combine the completion of the period of winter holiday rituals and the opening of a new, spring period of holidays and rituals, which were supposed to contribute to obtaining a rich harvest. Therefore, the basis of Shrovetide is the idea of ​​meeting - the wires, which can be traced in all rituals, whether it be puppet comedies or cooking culinary dishes.


Memorial ceremonies

The commemoration rites include the burning of stuffed animals, baking pancakes and the preparation of other memorial food. Such, for example, as a fish, which, because of its dumbness, was interpreted in folk culture as one of the incarnations of the souls of the dead. Yes, and snow was also considered the embodiment of the souls of the dead, so it was used for fortune-telling, and pancakes for carnival were kneaded on melted snow water.


With the commemorative complex of rites, there are also bans on carrying out certain economic types of work, especially women's ones, such as spinning and weaving during this period. These bans were explained by the fear of harming the invisibly present beside the souls of the dead. Especially these bans related to the evening time,because of which all the evenings for Shrovetide were called saints. Violation of the ban threatened troubles and troubles not only for people but also for livestock.


Shrovetide fires are also a commemoration rite, as they served as a kind of invitation to the deceased ancestors for an abundant dinner on the eve of fasting. That is, the Russian Shrovetide is in essence an analogue of Halloween, because the goal of both holidays is to “captivate” the spirits for the whole year ahead.


Marriage and family ceremonies.

Another important Pancake Week complex of rites is associated with marriage and family themes, since it was believed that marital relations should have contributed to the awakening of the earth and the growth of plants, to ensure the future harvest. Newlyweds were arranged for “bride”, put them to the pillars at the gate and forced to kiss everyone in sight, and women married the first year were given more difficult tests: for example, they harnessed them instead of horses to sleds and made friends with songs and jokes to the village. At the carnival, the mother-in-law invited the young guests "on pancakes" and had to anoint her son-in-law with oil, "so that it would be gentle and put on his wife as well."


On Shrovetide the newlyweds went to their families, gave them gifts. By the way, the custom to plant a doll on the main car of the wedding procession (or just donate a doll or a fluffy bear), which reappeared in the second half of the 20th century, goes back to the ancient Komoeditsa-Maslenitsa when the newlyweds were given a straw doll, calling it home Carnival, which was a symbol of prosperity and good health of the offspring of a young family.


Another Shrovetide rite is the punishment of those who did not marry in the form of a hanging pad: a piece of wood was hung around the neck of a single boy or unmarried girl, which symbolized the missing half. With this "couple" the punished were to walk all day until evening and endure endless ridicule.


Agricultural ceremonies.

The third set of Maslenitsa rituals is agricultural rituals. All these rituals are not associated with cereals, and with fibrous cereals - flax and hemp. Such rituals include skating from the mountains: it was believed that whoever rolls down from the mountain more than once, or who will travel further, he and flax will have more, so people said that they were going to ride "long flax".Flax and hemp are plants somehow related to women's labor, so in most cases carnival was perceived as a feast day, and in most rites women were assigned the main role ("Zolovka sit-rounds", "crackle pancakes", etc.).


All about pancakes. Cooking Recipes



Pancakes are an indispensable attribute of the holiday Maslenitsa. Pancakes are a truly Russian delicacy, which takes a worthy place in the kitchen of many peoples of the world. Ever since paganism in Russia, pancake was a symbol of the sun. It was believed that ritually pancakes eat for the glory of spring, the fertility of the earth.


To bake thin, ruddy and juicy pancakes, you need to use small pans - cast-iron or from another metal, but certainly with a thick bottom. Before you pour the dough into the pan, it is necessary to heat it well and oil it, otherwise the pancake will burn. Unused pans should be put on the fire and heated with some fat for 10 - 15 minutes, then the fat should be drained off, and the pan should be immediately wiped with salt. “The first pancake is lumpy,” says an old Russian proverb. Indeed, the first pancake is most often obtained by a "lumpy" - pale, thick, unappetizing.On the first pancakes you need to establish how much dough should be poured into the pan, so that the pancakes are thin and even.


It is necessary to make sure that the pancake is not burnt, for this it must be turned over in time. In a Russian oven, pancakes are simultaneously baked both on top and bottom. For pancakes you can take both wheaten and buckwheat flour. It is possible to bake pancakes with various seasonings, for example, with finely chopped green onions, chopped boiled eggs, with herring, cut into small pieces.


Pancakes with spices should be baked as follows: grease a heated pan with butter, sprinkle with green onions or chopped eggs, or put pieces of herring, pour the dough and continue to bake like ordinary pancakes.


Pancakes can be served heated butter, ghee or vegetable oil, sour cream, herring. sprats, cold-smoked fish. Pancakes are served hot. Ready-made pancakes are put in a heated bowl or on a plate in piles, covered with a napkin, or kept in an oven. It is best to serve pancakes straight from the frying pan to the table. Quick recipes for pancakes:


Pancakes thin ordinary.



Dough preparation.Mix raw eggs with salt, sugar, add 1/2 cup of milk, stir, add flour and knead the dough so that there are no lumps. After that, dilute the dough with the remaining milk.

Method of baking.Heat the pan well, lubricate it with oil, pour the dough into the pan, quickly turning it so that the dough is spread throughout the pan evenly and thinly. As soon as the pancake reddened, turn it over to the other side and fry as well.

Ingredients.On 250 g of flour - 2.5 cups of milk, 3 eggs, 1/2 tablespoon of sugar, 1/4 teaspoon of salt, 1 tablespoon of melted butter for frying.


Pancakes with refrain



Pancakes with soot - so called pancakes, in which any products are baked: chopped boiled eggs, mushrooms, chopped vegetables, etc. Ie. Crepe pancakes are a kind of pancake pastry dumplings and the “ancestors” of the closed pizza.

Baking method.Bake these pancakes usually in this way: pour less dough into the frying pan than usual. When the pancake is slightly browned, put a filling on it (“stove”) and pour it with a new portion of dough so that the “stove” is inside the pancake. Then turn the pancake to the other side and lightly fry.

Ingredients.For 2 cups of flour - 3 cups of milk, 1 egg, salt and sugar - to taste, 1/4 teaspoon of soda, a little vinegar.


Pancake cake with caviar



Pancakes are not baked thin, but thick, like fritters, and large.

Cooking method.Each pancake is smeared with oil, and on it a thin layer is laid caviar - red and black. After that, another pancake is put on top, on which caviar is also laid out, etc. But the pancake cake should not be too “multi-layered”, otherwise it will simply be inconvenient to cut it into pieces.

Ingredients. For 2, 5 cups of flour - 3 cups of milk, 5 eggs, 100 g of sugar, 200 g of butter and 1/4 tsp of salt.


Pancake cake



Dough preparation and baking method. Bake pancakes, as indicated in the recipe "Thin ordinary pancakes."

Cooking method.Grease and sprinkle with breadcrumbs. Put the pancake on the bottom of the dish and cover it with a layer of filling, then a second pancake and again a layer of filling, etc. to the very top of the mold. Cover the top layer of filling with pancake, smear with beaten egg, sprinkle with breadcrumbs, drizzle with butter and put in the oven for 30-40 minutes. When the cake is baked -. knock it over the dish and serve. Separately submit the oil.meat or chicken broth. Pancake cake can be made with any fillings - with one or several. For example. with minced chicken meat.


Pancakes with honey or sugar



Dough preparation.Mix 3 egg yolks with 1/2 cup of milk, add salt, sugar and, stirring, add flour. After that, put the warmed butter and knead the dough again. to avoid lumps. Then dilute with milk, infusing it gradually and add egg whites whipped into foam.

Baking method.Bake the pancakes not thick in a heated pan, pre-oiled. Each finished pancake folded, without removing from the pan., Quadrupled, then shift into a preheated dish and cover with a napkin. Serve with honey or sugar.

Ingredients.250 g of flour - 1/2 cup of milk, 3 eggs, 2 tablespoons of butter and melted butter to grease the pan, 1/4 teaspoon of salt.

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