Day of Russian cinema: a holiday of national cinema
Paris, 1895. The Lumière brothers organized their first film show, marking the beginning of the whole industry. “Move” - this is how the word “cinema” is translated from Greek into the Great and Mighty. Moving pictures reflecting reality will soon penetrate into Russia. In 1908, the film “Ponizovaya freemen”, filmed by Vladimir Romashkov, was successfully shown on the screens.
It was the first tape of domestic production, the duration of which was seven minutes. The plot was based on folk art - a popular song about Stepan Razin in those years.
The year 1925 was marked by another breakthrough in the sphere of Russian cinema. Sergei Eisenstein released the first ever color film project in our history, the Battleship Potemkin. Ten years later, the International Film Festival took place in Moscow. Sergei Eisenstein, already recognized by millions of viewers, sat in the chair of the jury, who presented the main prize to the Vasilyev brothers, the creators of the painting “Chapaev”.
The scenery of the early feature films were very primitive - they were no different from the theater and were written on canvas.
The conventionality and the lifelessness of the sham of that time was striking and looked extremely unpresentable. And then the beginning sculptor Boris Mukhin put forward the idea - to mount decorations from fragments, including real doorways and three-dimensional details. Innovation, initially met with hostility by directors, caught on and began to be used by studios throughout the country.
In the future, the evolution of film production has undergone multiple changes. Silent movie transformed into sound, black and white picture became color. Lenin called cinema the most important art, Soviet ideologists put this industry at the head of the educational angle. For a long time, domestic tapes have won prestigious awards in the field of cinema - the Oscars, the Cannes palm branches, and the prizes of Berlin and Venice.
Day of Russian cinema is celebrated on August 27th. Why was this date chosen? In 1919 the Sovnarkom of the RSFSR adopted an important decision - to nationalize the cinematographic industry.In fact, this meant expropriation, total control by the state system. From this point on, the trade in photographs and film materials, as well as a network of cinemas throughout the country, went “under the wing” of the Communist Party. Everyone began to manage the people's commissariats of enlightenment.
In 1980, on October 1, the Supreme Soviet of the USSR issued a Decree, which made significant changes to the existing calendar of significant dates. Domestic filmmakers have their own holiday, historically associated with the memorable day of August 27.
The change of epochs and the cultural paradigm entailed the renaming of the holiday. In the perestroika period, we began to celebrate the Day of Russian Cinema. Later, the filmmakers decided to shift the date to December 28, to join the slender ranks of the world public. These numbers and months are of international importance, since it was then that the legendary session of the Lumiere brothers took place.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, dark times came. Russian filmmakers have lost the opportunity to celebrate their epochal holiday right up to 2001. The fateful decision to return the Day of Cinema to the Russian calendar was born on the sidelines of the Ministry of Culture. The initiative belonged to the Service of Cinematography.
A year later, Nikita Mikhalkov, who headed the Union of Cinematographers, initiated the transfer of the Day of Cinema, proposing to displace it at the end of September. On this day, it was planned to hand over the Golden Eagle, a prize established by the National Academy of Film Arts. In government circles and among the general public, the idea did not meet with support; therefore, on August 27, it will continue to be a national event.
Today, there are about forty Russian studios, including industry giants like Mosfilm and Lenfilm, and more than three dozen regional enterprises. Joint efforts are made in the area of 100 paintings annually. One third of the box office accounted for the Russian sector, which allows the country to hold the second position in Europe (second only to France). The volume of financing the industry from the state budget is also increasing.
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