How to build a roof
You will need
- - roofing materials;
- - boards and bar;
- - Building tools;
- - House project.
At the design stage, decide which roof your house will have. In most regions of Russia they are made high, especially in very snowy regions and places with a maritime climate. The high roof allows the snow to slide in time, and the water - not to accumulate. Flat roofs are made mainly on apartment buildings.
Select a material. For a single-story building with a high roof more than any other tile is suitable. She is beautiful and reliably protects the house from the vagaries of the weather. Serves such coverage for a long time, requires almost no care. The two main drawbacks of such coverage are the relatively high price and the fact that working with it requires some skills. But a person who has built a large part of the house with his own hands usually masters them easily. Cheaper, but less decorative material - slate. He has a wavy profile. This material can immediately cover large surfaces.Duralumin plates, also wavy, look somewhat more impressive. They are increasingly replacing slate. You can cover the roof with sheet iron or make it completely wooden.
Erection of the roof with ramps begin with the installation of the power board. It serves to ensure that the roof load on the walls is uniform. Mauerplat is a thick beam made of 50x50 cm cross-section bar. This beam is located along an axis of the wall parallel to the ridge. You can install it in several ways. The choice depends on the size of the roof and the area of the house. If the roof area is more than 250 sq. M, on the axis of the wall where the powerpath will be, lay the Ariopoyas - a concrete beam with threaded rods embedded in it. The distance between the studs should not exceed 2 m. When calculating, please note that the extreme should be close to the ends of the main board. The length of the pins exceeds the thickness of the motherboard. For smaller houses, you can install pins directly into the wall, without the use of concrete parts. These two methods are suitable for both stone and wooden houses. When building a small brick building, you can fasten the power board with wire.Pieces of wire of the desired length are laid for 2-3 rows of bricks. The roof of a wooden house, built of sufficiently strong material, can be without a power board.
Make rafters. The thickness of the timber depends on the roofing material. Under heavy shingles, it is better to take a timber with a section of 8x20 cm. 7x15 is suitable for slate or planks, and even a 5x15 timber is sometimes used for light roofs of a large area. The method of their attachment is applied depending on the presence or absence of the mainboard. If the building is small and the roof is light, lay the beam on a wall that runs perpendicular to the ridge. When attaching rafters to powerplan. To secure the mount, make cuts on the rafters. Mauerplat can not touch, cuts made in it will reduce the strength of the structure. If you just lean the rafters on the beam, the roof will literally move away, and this will happen quite quickly.
Install the rafter cut on the power board. Hammer in 2 nails so that they go through both parts. Nails need to drive diagonally on both sides of the rafter. The third nail should enter the powerplate perpendicular to the plane currently on top.
With proper and careful installation, the upper ends of the rafters should connect to form a ridge. Connect them together. This can be done in several ways. When butt-fastening the upper edge of each rafter cut at an angle of the slope. The beam must rest in the opposite direction. Cutting can be done in a pattern or in pairs, so that the planes fit snugly together. Fasten each pair with two long nails. The joint can be strengthened with metal plates.
Fix rafters without ridge beams can and overlap. In this case, they touch each other not by the cut, but by the side surfaces. Fasten them together with a bolt or stud with a large washer.
You can mount the free ends of the rafters on the ridge beam. This method is suitable if you are not going to actively use the attic. Ridge bar fasten several vertical props. With this method, the lower end of the rafter is fastened with a notch on the mauerplat, and the upper one is attached to the ridge beam, and each element can be fastened separately.
Install the run. These are additional beams located between the main power board and the ridge.The run is an additional power board mounted on supports, in which vertical stands are mounted. The second beam is put on them. The lower ends of the rafters are attached in this case to an additional power board. At the edges of the girder install stops that connect the upper and lower beams. Between the upper longitudinal beams, place struts. They need to roof did not work out. It is best to make struts of the same material as the rafters.
Make a crate. It can be continuous or "in a run." You can use a non-edged board, removing the bark from it. For tiles it is better to do several runs at a short distance from each other. For metal, it is preferable to batten a bar, rather than unedged board. Coverthe roofroofing material.
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