What to do if blood has gone from the nose?
It is extremely important to monitor your health and the health of children, because sometimes timely detection of symptoms and immediate action can avoid serious consequences and solve existing problems in time.
Bleeding from the nose in medical practice is called epistaxis. In the nasal cavity there is a great many vessels, and if one of them is damaged, then blood from it will flow out. In general, all nosebleeds conditionally divided into two groups: anterior and posterior.
The first ones are the most common and, as a rule, do not cause complications, since they are associated with injuries of small vessels of the nasal cavity. Posterior hemorrhages are not as common and more dangerous as larger vessels are damaged.
The main danger in this case is due to the fact that blood flowing from deep-lying vessels can flow down the back of the nasopharynx, into the digestive tract or even into the respiratory tract (and this can lead to choking). Blood from the nose at least once in a life was at each person.And usually isolated cases do not cause anxiety, but if such a symptom occurs frequently, then it is worth sounding the alarm.
Why do nosebleeds occur?
Why is it bleeding from the nose? This may be due to a variety of processes occurring in the body. In general, all factors of influence are divided into local, affecting directly the nasal cavity, and general, affecting the entire body as a whole.
So, the possible causes of nosebleeds:
- Allergic reactions. If the allergy provokes a runny nose, the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity will thin out, which in time will lead to damage to small vessels and the occurrence of bleeding.
- Frequent colds. Due to frequent colds accompanied by a runny nose, the mucous membranes of the nasal cavity can also become thin and damaged, which can occasionally cause bleeding. As a rule, they are minor and quickly stop.
- High blood pressure. In hypertension, the blood exerts a constant and quite considerable pressure on the vessels, because of what they can be thinned and destroyed.For this reason, hypertensive patients often have nosebleeds (with concomitant fragility of blood vessels, blood can flow almost constantly from the nose). Often they are accompanied by some other manifestations: headaches, noise in the ears, nausea.
- Dry air If the air in the room is dry, the mucous membranes of the nose will dry up and become exposed to damage. With constant inhalation of excessively dry air, crusts can form on the surface of the mucous membranes, and if they are separated, blood can be released.
- Vascular diseases leading to their fragility, such as atherosclerosis, for example.
- Blood from the nose of a child is a common and often completely normal phenomenon. Such bleeding is associated with the physiological characteristics of the child's body. So, next to the lower nasal septum in the immediate vicinity of the mucous membrane is the so-called Kisselbach plexus zone, which is a network of densely intertwined vessels. And since these vessels are located extremely close to the surface of the mucous membranes, and these same mucous membranes in children are very thin, bleeding in childhood is not uncommon.
- Chronic diseases of the nasal cavity, in particular, rhinitis.Because of this disease, the mucous membranes become very thin, atrophy, may become covered with ulcers and crusts. And all this can lead to the release of blood.
- Drug use, in particular, inhaling cocaine. Such a bad habit severely damages the mucous membranes and leads to bleeding.
- Tumors of the nasal cavity (both malignant and benign).
- Sudden changes in atmospheric pressure. Vessels just can not stand the drop and burst.
- Taking certain medications, for example, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
- Nosebleed in an adult or child may be due to a head injury. So, if after a fall or a blow to the head from the nose, blood has gone, then, most likely, the injury caused damage to the blood vessels.
- The cause may be overheating, such as sunshine or heat stroke. In this case, the expansion of vessels under the influence of heat occurs, and they do not withstand such pressure and burst.
- To nosebleeds can lead to vitamin deficiency. Especially dangerous is the lack of vitamin C, which is responsible for the strength of the vascular walls. When it is deficient, the walls become brittle, fragile and thin, which is why they are easily damaged.
- Diseases of the blood associated with its reduced clotting.Thus, in hemophilia, any damage to the mucous membranes, which for a healthy person would go unnoticed, causes bleeding in patients. In this case, the blood can go hard, almost without stopping.
- Frequent stress, overwork, increased physical or mental stress. All this can make the vessels brittle and brittle.
- Mechanical damage to the nasal mucous membranes. Most often they occur in children due to picking their nose or the habit of placing foreign objects in their nose.
- Hormonal disorders. They can lead to a change in the structure of the walls of blood vessels, changes in blood composition, and blood pressure. So, nosebleeds can occur in adolescents in puberty or in pregnant women.
- Prolonged or uncontrolled use of vasoconstrictor drugs. Such drugs can lead to thinning, atrophy and damage to the nasal mucosa.
- Pheochromocytoma - adrenal tumor. How is it related to epistaxis? The fact is that such a tumor provokes the production of a large amount of stress hormones, which, in turn, leads to an increase in blood pressure.
How to be?
What to do if the nose is bleeding? How to stop her?
- First of all, you need to calm down, because stress will only aggravate the situation. Baby need hug, kiss.
- Take a sitting position and tilt your head forward.
- Nostril, from which blood flows, should be shut, pressing her finger to the nasal septum. You can also insert tampons soaked in hydrogen peroxide. The blood should stop in about 10 minutes (before this time the nostril should not be released, the bleeding will resume).
- A person needs to have access to fresh air. Undo the top buttons of a shirt or blouse and open the window.
- Ice can be applied to the nose for 10-15 minutes. The vessels will narrow and the bleeding will stop.
- If the bleeding does not stop, then you can use vasoconstrictor drugs. Moisten a cotton swab in one of these products and place it in the nasal cavity. Bury drops, throwing back his head, should not be.
- If the victim is unconscious, then it should be laid on its side.
What can not be done?
- You can not tilt your head back, it can lead to vomiting or choking with blood.
- You can not put a cotton swab deeply, its extraction may subsequently lead to repeated damage to the mucous membranes.
- It is not recommended to take a look at the nearest 10-12 hours in order to avoid injury to the mucous membranes.
When to sound the alarm?
In what cases the people's councils will not help? We list the situations in which only a doctor can help:
- Bleeding does not stop longer than 20-30 minutes.
- The victim is unconscious.
- Nosebleeds are accompanied by other disturbing symptoms, such as headache, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus, and so on.
Take the necessary measures in time, because sometimes nosebleeds can be a dangerous sign.
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